Google use cookies for serving our ads and handling visitor statistics. Other authors suggest that the variation in compositions is why correlating the viscosity of heavy crude with high accuracy is improbable (Beal 1946). 2005) and (Kartoatmodjo and Schmidt 1994). The goal was to create models in the following formats for the density and viscosity predictions. The pressure correction factor was neglected because all the measurements were done on dead oil samples under normal pressure. [PE 02/08] from where some of the viscosity data were used. The density of The correction factor Δρ Formulas are taken from Russia's GOST R 8.610-2004. 2 6 9 9 2\omega^{2} ,$$, $$\varepsilon = \left| {\frac{{{\text{Measured}} - {\text{calculated}}}}{\text{Measured}}} \right| \times 100.$$, $${\text{SD}} = \sqrt {\frac{{\sum\nolimits_{i = 1}^{n} {\left( {\hat{\mu }_{i} - \mu_{i} } \right)^{2} } }}{n - p}} , ,$$, $$\mu = \mu_{0} b'\rho \left[ {\frac{1}{b'\rho \chi } + 0.8 + 0.7614\left( {b'\rho \chi } \right)} \right],$$, $$b^{\prime}\rho \chi = \frac{v}{{R_{\text{g}} }}\left[ {\frac{R}{v - b} - \frac{1}{{v\left( {v + b} \right) + b\left( {v - b} \right)}}\left( {\frac{\partial a\left( T \right)}{\partial T}} \right)} \right]$$, $$b^{\prime}\rho = \frac{1}{v}\left[ {b - \frac{1}{{R_{\text{g}} }}\left( {\frac{\partial a\left( T \right)}{\partial T}} \right)} \right]$$, $$\frac{\partial a\left( T \right)}{\partial T} = - a\left( {T_{c} } \right)\left[ {\frac{{m + m^{2} \left( {1 - T_{r}^{0.5} } \right)}}{{\left( {TT_{c} } \right)^{0.5} }}} \right]$$, $$\mu_{0} = 0.1\frac{Nh}{v}\exp \left( {3.8\frac{{T_{\text{b}} }}{T}} \right)$$, https://doi.org/10.1007/s13202-015-0184-8. This equation can also be written using the compressibility factor (Z). Beal created a chart that described the viscosities of 655 dead oil samples at 38 °C, representing 492 oil fields around the world and covering viscosities ranging from 0.8 to 155 cP, gravities ranging from 10.1° to 52.5°API and temperatures from 38 to 105 °C. od is the viscosity of the dead oil in cP, T is the temperature in degree Celsius, and API@60F is the gravity of the dead oil measure at 60o F. The first challenge was to develop a unified model of a set of parameters for the entire range of dead crude oil density with only one equation. Ten different models (Beal 1946; Beggs and Robinson 1975; Elsharkawy and Alikhan 1999; Glaso 1980; Hossain et al. WtB= Barite Weight function downloadJSAtOnload() { Correlate and justify the results obtained for fresh and salt water. b), as shown in Table 2. Please read AddThis Privacy for more information. Please send comments or suggestions on accessibility to the site editor. The correlation coefficient for viscosity–density is positive, whereas the coefficient for viscosity-temperature is negative (Table 5). Fluid Property Correlations-State of the Art,” SPE Reservoir Engineering, (May 1991) p. 266. API gravity increases with increasing temperature, while specific gravity decreases with increasing temperature. density of oil, petroleum is equal to 881 kg/m³. Drill Prod Pract, American Petroleum Institute, New York, 275–284, Standing MB (1957) Drilling and production practice: API, USDOE, United States Department of Energy (1995) Data from the 1995 US Heavy Oil Database. is the change in density due to the effect of pressure on the oil, and Δρ The conversions on this site will not be accurate enough for all applications. These approaches were (A) squaring the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient, (B) relative error, (C) standard deviation, and (D) cross plots. 6. The average of the pseudo-component for each group of hydrocarbons in each distillation range was calculated. To check the ability of the proposed viscosity model to present all experimental data, cross plots of the measured and predicted viscosity values were used. It was found that it is not possible to generalize a correlation for the heavy oil viscosity using only API and temperature. In Data from the 1995 US Heavy Oil Database. As soon as the bottles were opened, the water contents of the samples were measured with a Metrohm KF (model 832-Thermoprep), and the moisture range was measured to be between 10 × 10−4 and 5 × 10−3 g g−1. Deviation of experimental viscosity data from predictive values using proposed model. The results were satisfactory with an R This work was supported and funded by Kuwait University, Research Grant No. The dynamic viscosity, μ, of 30 dead crude oil samples in the temperature range from 20 to 160 °C was determined using an electromagnetic viscometer. [GE01/07] - Petroleum Fluid Research Center (PFRC) and Research Grant No. Intermediate crude oil: 22.1° ≤ °API ≤ 31.5° Heavy crude oil: °API < 22.1o; Molecular Weight of the Crude Oil, MW o. The TBP distillation was carried out in the AUTODEST 800 Fisher GmbH backed column, equivalent to 15-trayes according to ASTM D 2892 for the test exposed to the atmosphere and according to ASTM D 5236 for the test under vacuum. c, and ω is the acentric factor. Oil with the least specific gravity has the highest API gravity. 2005; Petrosky and Farshad 1995; Standing 1947) were used to determine the capability of these models to predict the experimental viscosity data. The proposed model was tested along with the literature models using crude oil from different areas in North America (USDOE 1995) to test its ability to be generalized. Two other models by Hosain et al. 5. Table 7 shows a summary of the ten evaluated models with all their data ranges. The John A. Dutton e-Education Institute is the learning design unit of the College of Earth and Mineral Sciences at The Pennsylvania State University. This viscosity model is a function of the absolute value of reservoir temperature (T) and the crude oil density (ρ) which are more valuable and simple to use. In Imperial or US customary measurement system, the density is equal to 55 pound per cubic foot [lb/ft³], or 0.509 ounce per cubic inch [oz/inch³] . The relative average error test was performed by calculating the absolute percent error between the calculated and the measured value using the following expression; The average values of the absolute errors are shown in Table 8, and the distribution of the errors for all the models is shown in Fig. Viscosity and density are important physical properties of crude oil.

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